This module makes use of the best available evidence to inform practice and it is anticipated that the users of this module will adopt the principles outlined within it. Unfortunately, many of the interventions currently used for the treatment of low back pain in Wales are now regarded as lacking a rigorous evidence base, and several key modalities that have been included within recent guidelines have been tardy in their adoption by the Welsh Assembly Government and Health Boards.

The NICE guidelines (CG88), when published proved controversial, but nevertheless, they are informed by the best available evidence and the findings of guidelines do, in general, concur with the findings of other low back pain guidelines (see Table 1).