- Lipodermatosclerosis (LDS) - is an area of tight painful skin with hardened subcutaneous tissue just above the ankle. This is due to the infiltration of fibrin and inflamamation and results in the leg shape resembling an inverted champagne bottle.
- Atrophie blanche. white areas of decreased capillary density, often associated with lipodermatosclerosis and can also be painful.
- Venous eczema can present as itchy, erythematous, weeping and scaled areas of skin that may be painful; due to inflammation triggered by oedema resulting from venous hypertension. Venous eczema can be wet or dry.
NB: all the above contribute to skin fragility and increased risk of leg ulceration and delayed healing.