Introduction

1 World Health Organisation. (2009) Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Available at: www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/GlobalHealthRisks_report_full.pdf 

2 Department of Health. (2011) Start Active, Stay Active. A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries' Chief Medical Officers. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_128209 

3 Department of Health. (2005) Choosing activity: a physical activity action plan. London: HMSO.

4 Wen CP, Wai JPM, Tsai MK, Yang YC, Cheng TYD, Lee M, et al. (2011) Minimum effort of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy. The Lancet; 378:(9798): 1244-1253.

5 Blair SN. (2009) Physical inactivity: the biggest public health problem of the 21st century. British Journal of Sports Medicine; 43:1-2

6 Weiler R, Feldschreiber P, Stamatakis E. (2011) Medicolegal neglect? The case for physical activity promotion and Exercise medicine. British Journal of Sports Medicine; 46:228-232

Chapter 1   

The UK Physical Activity Guidelines

1. Department of Health. (2011) Start Active, Stay Active. A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries’ Chief Medical Officers. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_128209

2. Department of Health. (2011) UK Physical Activity Guidelines. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_127931

3. O’Donovan, G., Blazevich, A.J., Boreham, C., Cooper, A.R., Crank, H., Ekelund, U., Fox, K., Gately, P., Giles-Corti, B., Gill, J.M.R., Hamer, M., McDermott, I., Murphy, M., Mutrie, N., Reilly, J.J., Saxton, J.M., Stamatakis, E.(2010) The ABC of physical Activity for Health: a consensus statement from the British Association of Sport and Exercises Sciences. Journal of Sport Sciences; 28:6: 573-591.

4 Physical Activity Policy and Health Improvement Directorate. (2009) The general practice physical activity questionnaire (GPPAQ); a screening tool to assess adult physical activity levels within primary care.

5 The Scot-PASQ. http://www.healthscotland.com/documents/6255.aspx

6 WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/pa/en/

Chapter 2    

All - Cause Mortality (longevity)

1 Department of Health. (2011) Start Active, Stay Active. A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries’ Chief Medical Officers. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_128209

2 Blair SN. (2009) Physical inactivity: the biggest public health problem of the 21st century. British Journal of Sports Medicine; 43:1-2

3 Warburton DER, Charlesworth S, Ivey A, et al. (2010) A systematic review of the evidence for Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults. The International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical activity. 2010;7:39-39 doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-7-39

4 Ruiz JR, Sui X, Lobelo F, et al. Association between muscular strength and mortality in men: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2008;337: 92-5

5 Patel AV, Bernstein L, Deka A, et al. Leisure time Spent Sitting in Relation to Total Mortality in a Prospective Cohort of US Adults. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2010;172(4):419-29 doi:10.1093/aje/kwq155

6 Wen CP, Wai JPM, Tsai MK et al. (2011) Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet 2011; 378(9798):1244-53 doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(11)60749-6

Chapter 3           

Physical Activity and Cancer

1 World Cancer Research Fund. Continuous Update Project findings and reports. (cited 2017 Nov 3) Available from: http://www.wcrf.org/int/research-we-fund/continuous-update-project-findings-reports

2 Singh F, Newton RU, Galvão DA, et al. A systematic review of pre-surgical exercise intervention studies with cancer patients. Surgical Oncology. 2013 Jun 30;22(2):92-104.

3 Cavalheri V, Granger C. Preoperative exercise training for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017;6

4 Hijazi Y, Gondal U, Aziz O. A systematic review of prehabilitation programs in abdominal cancer surgery. International Journal of Surgery 2017;39:156-62

5 Chang JI, Lam V, Patel MI. Preoperative pelvic floor muscle exercise and post-prostatectomy incontinence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Urology 2016; 69:460-67

6 Speck RM, Courneya KS, Mâsse LC, et al. An update of controlled physical activity trials in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Cancer Survivorship. 2010 Jun 1;4(2):87-100.

7 Mishra SI, Scherer RW, Snyder C, et al. Exercise interventions on health‐related quality of life for people with cancer during active treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD008465.DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008465.pub2.

8 Cramp F, Byron‐Daniel J. Exercise for the management of cancer‐related fatigue in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD006145. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006145.pub3.

9 Chan DN, Lui LY, So WK. Effectiveness of exercise programmes on shoulder mobility and lymphoedema after axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer: systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2010 Sep 1;66(9):1902-14.

10 McNeely ML, Campbell K, Ospina M, et al. Exercise interventions for upper‐limb dysfunction due to breast cancer treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD005211. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005211.pub2.

11 Fong DY, Ho JW, Hui BP, et al. Physical activity for cancer survivors: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2012 Jan 31;344:e70.

12 World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research . Colorectal Cancer: Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of colorectal cancer. 2011. (cited 2017 Aug 3) Available from: http://www.wcrf.org/int/research-we-fund/continuous-update-project-findings-reports/colorectal-cancer

13 Doyle C, Kushi LH, Byers T, et al. Nutrition and physical activity during and after cancer treatment: an American Cancer Society guide for informed choices. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2006 Nov 1;56(6):323-53.

14 Thorsen L, Skovlund E, Strømme SB, et al. Effectiveness of physical activity on cardiorespiratory fitness and health-related quality of life in young and middle-aged cancer patients shortly after chemotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2005 Apr 1;23(10):2378-88.

15 Thune I, Smeland S. Can physical activity prevent cancer? Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2000 Nov 10;120(27):3296-301 (article in Norwegian)

16 Courneya KS, Mackey JR, Bell GJ,et al. Randomized controlled trial of exercise training in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: cardiopulmonary and quality of life outcomes. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2003 May 1;21(9):1660-8.

17 Oldervoll LM, Loge JH, Lydersen S, et al. Physical exercise for cancer patients with advanced disease: a randomized controlled trial. The Oncologist. 2011 Nov 1;16(11):1649-57.

18 Oldervoll LM, Loge JH, Paltiel H, et al. The effect of a physical exercise program in palliative care: a phase II study. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2006 May 31;31(5):421-30.

19 Albrecht TA, Taylor AG. Physical activity in patients with advanced-stage cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing. 2012 Jun 1;16(3):293.

20 Heywood R, McCarthy AL, Skinner TL. Safety and feasibility of exercise interventions in patients with advanced cancer: a systematic review. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2017 Jul 25:1-20.

21 Ibrahim EM, Al-Homaidh A. Physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis: meta-analysis of published studies. Medical Oncology. 2011 Sep 1;28(3):753-65.

22 Je Y, Jeon JY, Giovannucci EL, Meyerhardt JA. Association between physical activity and mortality in colorectal cancer: a meta‐analysis of prospective cohort studies. International Journal of Cancer. 2013 Oct 15;133(8):1905-13.

23 Schmid D, Leitzmann MF. Association between physical activity and mortality among breast cancer and colorectal cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Oncology. 2014 Jul 1;25(7):1293-311.

24 Betof AS, Dewhirst MW, Jones LW. Effects and potential mechanisms of exercise training on cancer progression: a translational perspective. Brain, Behaviour, and Immunity. 2013 Mar 15;30:S75-87.

25 Schmid D, Leitzmann MF. Association between physical activity and mortality among breast cancer and colorectal cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Oncology. 2014 Jul 1;25(7):1293-311.

26 Richman EL, Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, et al. Physical activity after diagnosis and risk of prostate cancer progression: data from the cancer of the prostate strategic urologic research endeavour. Cancer Research. 2011 Jun 1;71(11):3889-95.

27 Kenfield SA, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci E, Chan JM. Physical activity and survival after prostate cancer diagnosis in the health professionals follow-up study. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2011 Jan 4;29(6):726-32.

28 Jones LW, Hornsby WE, Goetzinger A,et al. Prognostic significance of functional capacity and exercise behaviour in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer. 2012 May 31;76(2):248-52.

29 Ruden E, Reardon DA, Coan AD, et al. Exercise behaviour, functional capacity, and survival in adults with malignant recurrent glioma. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2011 Jun 20;29(21):2918-23.

30 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, London. Early and locally advanced breast cancer. (cited 2017 Aug 7). Clinical guideline 80. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg80

31 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. London. 2014. Advanced breast cancer: diagnosis and treatment. (cited 2017 Aug 7). NICE Clinical guideline 81. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg81

32 Macmillan Cancer Support. Physical activity evidence review. Available from: http://www.macmillan.org.uk/Documents/AboutUs/Commissioners/Physicalactivityevidencereview.pdf

33 Thune I. Cancer Ch 19. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. 2010. (cited 2017 Aug 3). Available from: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/19.-Cancer.pdf

Chapter 4 

Cardiovascular Health

1 Woodcock, J. Franco, OH, Orsini N, Robert I, (2011). Non-vigorous physical activity and all-cause mortality: Systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40(July 2010), pp.121–138.

2 Department of Health. (2011) Start Active, Stay Active. A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries’ Chief Medical Officers. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_128209

3 Paffenbarger RS, Lee IM. Exercise and fitness. In: Manson JE, Ridker PM, Gaziano JM, Hennekens CH, eds. Prevention of Myocardial Infarction. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1996:172-202

4 Wilson MG, Ellison GM, Cable NT. Basic science behind the cardiovascular benefits of exercise. Heart 2015; 101: 758-765

5 Cider Ά, Tyni-Lenné, Schaufelberger M. Ch 29 Heart failure. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2010) Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Available at: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/29.-Heart-failure.pdf

6 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2016) Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction, including lipid modification : NICE clinical guideline 181. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

7 Warburton, D.E.R ., Katzmarzyk, P.T., Rhodes, R.E., Shephard, J. (2007) Evidence-informed physical activity guidelines for Canadian adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism; 32:(2): S16-S68

8 Anderson, L. & Taylor, R.S., 2014. Cardiac rehabilitation for people with heart disease: an overview of Cochrane Systematic reviews. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 12, p.CD011273.

9 Anderson, L., Oldridge, N., Thompson, D. R., et al. (2016). Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation for Coronary Heart Disease: Cochrane Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 67(1), 1–12.

10 National Audit of Cardiac Rehabilitation (NACR). The 2015 Annual Report.

11 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2013) MI-secondary prevention: Secondary prevention in primary and secondary care for patients following a myocardial infarction. NICE clinical guideline 172. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

12 Pedersen, B.K., Saltin, B. (2006) Review. Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports; 16:(1): 3-63.

13 BACR (2006) Phase IV Exercise Instructor Training Manual and ACSM (2009) Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. Courtesy of Wales NERS guidelines.

14 Cider Ά, Tyni-Lenné, Schaufelberger M. Ch 29 Heart failure. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2010) Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Available at: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/29.-Heart-failure.pdf

15 Taylor RS, Sagar VA, Davies EJ, et al. Exercise-based rehabilitation for heart failure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003331. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003331.pub4.

16 Belardinelli, R Georgiou D, Cianci G, and Purcaro A., (2012). 10-Year Exercise Training in Chronic Heart Failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 60(16), pp.1521–1528.

17 Pina, I.L., Apstein, C.S., Balady, G.J. (2003) Exercise and heart failure: a statement from the American Heart Associated committee on exercise, rehabilitation and prevention. Circulation; 107:1210-6

18 Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA). (2010) Comprehensive heart failure practice guideline. Journal of Cardiac Failure; 16:e1-194.

19 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2010) Chronic heart failure: Management of chronic heart failure in adults in primary and secondary care. NICE clinical guideline 108. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

20 Whelton SP, Chin A, Xin X, He J. (2013) Effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Ann Int Med. 136 (7): 493-503

21 Pescatello, L.S., Franklin, B.A., Fagard,et al. (2004) American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and hypertension. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; 36: 533-553.

22 Cornelissen VA, Smart NA. (2013) Exercise training for blood pressure: A systemic review and meta-analysis. Journal of American Heart Association. 2 (1) e004473. doi:10.1161/JAHA.112.004473

23 Cornelissen VA. Fagard RH. (2005) Effect of resistance training on resting blood pressure. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Journal of Hypertension. 23:251-9

24 American College of Sports medicine. Position stand. (1993) Physical activity, physical fitness and hypertension. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise. 25:i-x

25 Lewington, S., Clarke, R., Qizilbash, N., Collins, R. (2002) Prospective studies collaboration. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality. A met-analysis of individual data from one million adults in 61 prospective studies. The Lancet; 360: 1903-1913.

26 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2011) Hypertension. The Clinical Management of Primary Hypertension in Adults. NICE clinical guideline 127. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

27 Musini VM, Tejani AM, Bassett K, Wright JM. (2009) Parmacotherapy for hypertension in the elderly. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD000028. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000028.pub2

28 Brooks JHM, Ferro A. (2012) The physician’s role in prescribing physical activity for the prevention and treatment of essential hypertension. JRSM Cardiovascular Disease.1:4:12

29 Nocon M, Hiemann T, Mϋller-Riemenschneider F, et al. (2008) Association of physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a systemic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation.15:239-46

30 Durstine JL, Grandjean PW, Davis PG, et al. (2001) Blood lipid and lipoprotein adaptations to exercise. A quantitative analysis. Sports Med ;31:1033-62.

31 Shaw KA, Gennat HC, O'Rourke P, Del Mar C. (2006) Exercise for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003817. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003817.pub3

32 Kodama S, Tanaka S, Saiko K, et al. (2007) Effect of aerobic exercise training on serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Arch Int Med. 167:999-1008

33 Björck L, Thelle DS. Ch 33 Lipids. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2010) Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Available at: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/33.-Lipids.pdf

34 Peach, G., Griffin, M., Jones, K.G., Hinchcliffe, R. (2012) Diagnosis and management of peripheral artery disease. British Medical Journal; 345.36-41.

35 Trans Atlantic InterSociety Consensus (TASC). (2000) Management of peripheral arterial disease. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery; 19:S1-S250

36 Lane, R.Ellis B, Watson L et al., 2014. Exercise for intermittent claudication. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 7, p.CD000990

37 Parmenter, B.J., Dieberg, G. & Smart, N.A., 2015. Exercise training for management of peripheral arterial disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 45(2), pp.231–44.

38 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2012) Lower limb peripheral arterial disease: diagnosis and management: NICE clinical guideline 147. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

39 O’Donovan, G., Blazevich, A.J., Boreham, C., et al.(2010) The ABC of physical Activity for Health: a consensus statement from the British Association of Sport and Exercises Sciences. Journal of Sport Sciences; 28:6: 573-591

40 United States Department of Health and Human Services. (2008) Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Available at: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines/default.aspx

41 Grimby G, Willén C, Engardt M, Summerhagen KS. Ch 47. Stroke. 1 Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2010) Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Available at: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/47.-Stroke.pdf

42 Department of Health. (2011) Start Active, Stay Active. A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries’ Chief Medical Officers. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_128209

43 Naci, H. & Ioannidis, J.P.A., 2013. Comparative effectiveness of exercise and drug interventions on mortality outcomes: metaepidemiological study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 347, p.f5577.

44 Potempa, K., Lopez, M., Braun, L.T., et al. (1995) Physiological outcomes of aerobic exercise training in hemiparetic stroke patients. Stroke; 26:101-105

45 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2013) Stroke rehabilitation: Long term rehabilitation after stroke: NICE clinical guideline 162. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

Chapter 5

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

1 Stevens PE, O'donoghue DJ, De Lusignan S, et al. Chronic kidney disease management in the United Kingdom: NEOERICA project results. Kidney International. 2007 Jul 1;72(1):92-9.

2 Shlipak MG, Fried LF, Cushman M, et al. Cardiovascular mortality risk in chronic kidney disease: comparison of traditional and novel risk factors. JAMA. 2005 Apr 13;293(14):1737-45.

3 Painter P. Physical functioning in end‐stage renal disease patients. Hemodialysis International. 2005 Jul 1;9(3):218-35.

4 Hiraki K, Yasuda T, Hotta C, et al. Decreased physical function in pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease. Clinical and Experimental Nephrology. 2013 Apr 1;17(2):225-31.

5 Roshanravan B, Robinson-Cohen C, Patel KV, et al. Association between physical performance and all-cause mortality in CKD. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2013 Apr 30;24(5):822-830.

6 Zelle DM, Klaassen G, van Adrichem E, et al. Physical inactivity: A risk factor and target for intervention in renal care. Nature Reviews Nephrology. 2017 Mar 1;13(3):152-68.

7 Robinson-Cohen C, Littman AJ, Duncan GE, et al. Physical activity and change in estimated GFR among persons with CKD. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2014 Feb;25(2):399-406.

8 Chen IR, Wang SM, Liang CC, et al. Association of walking with survival and RRT among patients with CKD stages 3–5. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2014 Jul;9(7):1183-9.

9 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. London. Chronic kidney disease in adults: assessment and management. 2014 NICE clinical guideline 182.(cited 2017 15/11) Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg182

10 KIDGO 2012 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease. International Society of Nephrology. 2013;3(1):1-163

11 Heiwe S. Ch 32. Kidney disease (chronic) and kidney transplant. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2010) Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Available at: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/32.-Kidney-disease-chronic-and-kidney.pdf

12 Heiwe S, Jacobson SH. Exercise training for adults with chronic kidney disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD003236. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003236.pub2.

13 Howden EJ, Fassett RG, Isbel NM, Coombes JS. Exercise training in chronic kidney disease patients. Sports Medicine. 2012 Jun 1;42(6):473-88.

14 Heiwe S, Jacobson SH. Exercise training in adults with CKD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2014 Sep 30;64(3):383-93.

15 Cheema BS, Chan D, Fahey P, Atlantis E. Effect of progressive resistance training on measures of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, muscular strength and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine. 2014 Aug 1;44(8):1125-38.

16 Barcellos FC, Santos IS, Umpierre D, et al.. Effects of exercise in the whole spectrum of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review. Clinical Kidney Journal. 2015 Oct 20;8(6):753-65.

17 Kosmadakis GC, John SG, Clapp EL, et al. Benefits of regular walking exercise in advanced pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 2011 Jul 27;27(3):997-1004.

18 Viana JL, Kosmadakis GC, Watson EL, et al. Evidence for anti-inflammatory effects of exercise in CKD. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2014 Sep 1;25(9):2121-30.

19 Headley SA, Germain MJ, Milch CM, et al. Immediate blood pressure‐lowering effects of aerobic exercise among patients with chronic kidney disease. Nephrology. 2008 Oct 1;13(7):601-6.

20 Mustata S, Groeneveld S, Davidson W, et al. Effects of exercise training on physical impairment, arterial stiffness and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease: a pilot study. International Urology and Nephrology. 2011 Dec 1;43(4):1133-41.

21 Watson EL, Greening NJ, Viana JL, et al. Progressive resistance exercise training in CKD: a feasibility study. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2015 Aug 31;66(2):249-57.

22 Greenwood SA, Koufaki P, Mercer TH, et al. Effect of exercise training on estimated GFR, vascular health, and cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with CKD: a pilot randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2015 Mar 31;65(3):425-34.

23 Gould DW, Graham‐Brown MP, Watson EL, et al. Physiological benefits of exercise in pre‐dialysis chronic kidney disease. Nephrology. 2014 Sep 1;19(9):519-27.

24 Smart NA, Williams AD, Levinger I, Selig S, Howden E, Coombes JS, Fassett RG. Exercise & Sports Science Australia (ESSA) position statement on exercise and chronic kidney disease. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2013 Sep 30;16(5):406-11.

25 Beddhu S, Baird BC, Zitterkoph J, et al. Physical activity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (NHANES III). Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2009 Dec 1;4(12):1901-6.

26 Johansen KL. Exercise and chronic kidney disease. Sports Medicine. 2005 Jun 1;35(6):485-99.

27 Greenwood SA, Naish P, Clark R, et al. Intra-dialytic exercise training: a pragmatic approach. Journal of Renal Care. 2014 Sep 1;40(3):219-26.

28 Smith AC, Burton JO. Exercise in kidney disease and diabetes: time for action. Journal of Renal Care. 2012 Feb 1;38(s1):52-8.

29 Smith AC, Burton JO. What I tell my patients about exercise. British Journal of Renal Medicine. 2014;19(1):15-8.

Chapter 6 Mental Health

1  Martinsen EW, Taube J. Ch 44 Schizophrenia. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. 2010. (cited 2018 Jun 16) Available here

2  De Hert M, Dekker JM, Wood D, Kahl KG, Holt RI, Möller HJ. Cardio here vascular disease and diabetes in people with severe mental illness position statement from the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), supported by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). European Psychiatry. 2009 Sep 30;24(6):412-24.

3  Correll CU, Solmi M, Veronese N, et al. Prevalence, incidence and mortality from cardiovascular disease in patients with pooled and specific severe mental illness: a large‐scale meta‐analysis of 3,211,768 patients and 113,383,368 controls. World Psychiatry. 2017 Jun 1;16(2):163-80.

4  Compton MT, Daumit GL, Druss BG. Cigarette smoking and overweight/obesity among individuals with serious mental illnesses: a preventive perspective. Harvard Review of Psychiatry. 2006 Jan 1;14(4):212-22.

5  Mammen G, Faulkner G. Physical activity and the prevention of depression: a systematic review of prospective studies. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2013 Nov 30;45(5):649-57.

6  McKercher C, Sanderson K, Schmidt MD, Otahal P, Patton GC, Dwyer T, Venn AJ. Physical activity patterns and risk of depression in young adulthood: a 20-year cohort study since childhood. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2014 Nov 1;49(11):1823-34.

7  Harvey SB, Øverland S, Hatch SL, et al. Exercise and the Prevention of Depression: Results of the HUNT Cohort Study. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2017 Oct 3:appi-jp.

8  Cooney GM, Dwan K, Greig CA, Lawlor DA, Rimer J, Waugh FR, McMurdo M, Mead GE. Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD004366. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004366.pub6.

9  Kjellman B, Martinsen EW, Taube J, Andersson E. Ch 24 Depression. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. 2010. (cited 2018 Jun 16) Available here.

10  Rebar AL, Stanton R, Geard D, Short C, Duncan MJ, Vandelanotte C. A meta-meta-analysis of the effect of physical activity on depression and anxiety in non-clinical adult populations. Health Psychology Review. 2015 Aug 7;9(3):366-78.

11  Schuch FB, Deslandes AC, Stubbs B, Gosmann NP, da Silva CT, de Almeida Fleck MP. Neurobiological effects of exercise on major depressive disorder: a systematic review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 2016 Feb 29;61:1-11.

12  Pereira SM, Geoffroy MC, Power C. Depressive symptoms and physical activity during 3 decades in adult life: bidirectional associations in a prospective cohort study. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Dec 1;71(12):1373-80.

13  Dunn AL, Trivedi MH, Kampert JB, Clark CG, Chambliss HO. Exercise treatment for depression: efficacy and dose response. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2005 Jan 31;28(1):1-8.

14  Stanton R, Reaburn P. Exercise and the treatment of depression: a review of the exercise program variables. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2014 Mar 31;17(2):177-82.

15  Stubbs B, Vancampfort D, Rosenbaum S, et al. Dropout from exercise randomized controlled trials among people with depression: A meta-analysis and meta regression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2016. 190:457-466

16  Larun L, Nordheim LV, Ekeland E, Hagen KB, Heian F. Exercise in prevention and treatment of anxiety and depression among children and young people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD004691. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004691.pub2.

17  Callaghan P, Norman P. A Prospective Evaluation Of The Theory Of Planned Behaviour And Transtheoretical Model Of Change On Exercise In Young People. Psychology and Health. 2004 Jun 1;19:29-30.

18  Callaghan P, Khalil E, Morres I, Carter T. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of preferred intensity exercise in women living with depression. BMC Public Health. 2011 Jun 12;11(1):465.

19  National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. London Depression in adults: recognition and management. NICE clinical guideline 90. 2016. (cited2017 Aug 15) Available from here.

20  Warburton DE, Katzmarzyk PT, Rhodes RE, Shephard RJ. Evidence-informed physical activity guidelines for Canadian adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 2007 Nov 14;32(S2E):S16-68.

21  Martinsen EW, Taube J. Ch 16 Anxiety. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. 2010. (cited 2018 Jun 16) Available from here.

22  Jayakody K, Gunadasa S, Hosker C. Exercise for anxiety disorders: systematic review. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2013 Jan: 187-196.

23  Gorczynski P, Faulkner G. Exercise therapy for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD004412. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004412.pub2.

24  Vancampfort D, Probst M, Helvik Skjaerven L, Catalán-Matamoros D, Lundvik-Gyllensten A, Gómez-Conesa A, Ijntema R, De Hert M. Systematic review of the benefits of physical therapy within a multidisciplinary care approach for people with schizophrenia. Physical Therapy. 2012 Jan 1;92(1):11-23.

25  Firth J, Cotter J, Elliott R, French P, Yung AR. A systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise interventions in schizophrenia patients. Psychological Medicine. 2015 May;45(7):1343-61.

26  Firth J, Stubbs B, Rosenbaum S, Vancampfort D, Malchow B, Schuch F, Elliott R, Nuechterlein KH, Yung AR. Aerobic exercise improves cognitive functioning in people with schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 2016 Aug 12;43(3):546-56.

27  Vancampfort D, Stubbs B, Ward PB, Teasdale S, Rosenbaum S. Why moving more should be promoted for severe mental illness. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Apr 1;2(4):295.

28  National Institute for Clinical Excellence. London. Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults: prevention and management. 2014 Mar. (cited 2017 Aug 9) Available from here.

29  United States Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. 2008. (cited 2017 Aug 3) Available from here.

30  King AC, Oman RF, Brassington GS, Bliwise DL, Haskell WL. Moderate-intensity exercise and self-rated quality of sleep in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 1997 Jan 1;277(1):32-7.

31  Jonsdottir IH, Ursin H. Ch 46 Stress. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. 2010. (cited 2018 Jun 16) Available from here.

32  Alzheimers society report on dementia in the UK. (cited 2017 Aug 7) Available from here.

33  Prince M, Wimo A, Guerchet M, et al. World Alzheimer report 2015 – the global impact of dementia: an analysis of prevalence, incidence, cost and trends. London: Alzheimer’s Disease International, 2015

34  Aarsland D, Sardahaee FS, Anderssen S, Ballard C, the Alzheimer's Society Systematic Review group. Is physical activity a potential preventive factor for vascular dementia? A systematic review. Aging and Mental Health. 2010 May 1;14(4):386-95.

35  Livingston G, Somerlad A, Orgeta, et al. Dementia prevention, intervention, and care. The Lancet Commissions. www.thelancet.com Published online July 20, 2017 (cited 2017 Nov 3) here.

36  O'Donovan G, Blazevich AJ, Boreham C, Cooper AR, Crank H, Ekelund U, Fox KR, Gately P, Giles-Corti B, Gill JM, Hamer M. The ABC of Physical Activity for Health: a consensus statement from the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2010 Apr 1;28(6):573-91.

37  Helbastad JL, Taraldsen K, Saltvedt I. Ch 23 Dementia. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. 2010. (cited 2018 Jun 16) Available from here.

38  Blondell SJ, Hammersley-Mather R, Veerman JL. Does physical activity prevent cognitive decline and dementia?: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. BMC Public Health. 2014 May 27;14(1):510.

39  Baumgart M, Snyder HM, Carrillo MC, et al. Summary of the evidence on modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia: a population-based perspective. Alzheimer's Dementia. 2015 Jun 30;11(6):718-26.

40  Norton S, Matthews FE, Barnes DE, Yaffe K, Brayne C. Potential for primary prevention of Alzheimer's disease: an analysis of population-based data. The Lancet Neurology. 2014 Aug 31;13(8):788-94.

41  Ahlskog JE, Geda YE, Graff-Radford NR, Petersen RC. Physical exercise as a preventive or disease-modifying treatment of dementia and brain aging. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2011 Sep 30 (Vol. 86, No. 9, pp. 876-884). Elsevier.

42  Sofi F, Valecchi D, Bacci D, et al. Physical activity and risk of cognitive decline: a meta‐analysis of prospective studies. Journal of Internal Medicine. 2011 Jan 1;269(1):107-17.

43  Saxena S, Van Ommeren M, Tang KC, Armstrong TP. Mental health benefits of physical activity. Journal of Mental Health. 2005 Jan 1;14(5):445-51.

44  Weuve J, Kang JH, Manson JE, Breteler MM, Ware JH, Grodstein F. Physical activity, including walking, and cognitive function in older women. Jama. 2004 Sep 22;292(12):1454-61.

45  National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. London. Mental well-being and independence in older people: Public health gu idance 16. 2016 (cited 2017 Aug 7) Available from here.

46  Northey JM, Cherbuin N, Pampa Kl, et al. Exercise interventions for cognitive function in adults over 50: a systematic review with meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. Published Online First 24 April 2017 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096587.

47  Young J, Angevaren M, Rusted J, Tabet N. Aerobic exercise to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment. The Cochrane Library. 2015 Apr 22.

48  Sabia S, Dugravot A, Dartigues JF, et al. Physical activity, cognitive decline, and risk of dementia: 28 year follow-up of Whitehall II cohort study. BMJ. 2017 Jun 22;357:j2709

49  Sink KM, Espeland MA, Castro CM, et al. Effect of a 24-month physical activity intervention vs health education on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults: the LIFE randomized trial. JAMA. 2015 Aug 25;314(8):781-90.

50  Snowden M, Steinman L, Mochan K, et al. Effect of exercise on cognitive performance in community‐dwelling older adults: review of intervention trials and recommendations for public health practice and research. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2011 Apr 1;59(4):704-16.

51  Andrieu S, Guyonnet S, Coley N, et al. Effect of long-term omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation with or without multidomain intervention on cognitive function in elderly adults with memory complaints (MAPT): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet Neurology. 2017 May31;16(5):377-89.

52  Leckie RL, Oberlin LE, Voss MW, et al. DNF mediates improvements in executive function following a 1-year exercise intervention. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2014;8.

53  Brown BM, Peiffer JJ, Martins RN. Multiple effects of physical activity on molecular and cognitive signs of brain aging: can exercise slow neurodegeneration and delay Alzheimer's disease? Molecular Psychiatry. 2013 Aug 1;18(8):864.

54  Jensen CS, Hasselbalch SG, Waldemar G, Simonsen AH. Biochemical markers of physical exercise on mild cognitive impairment and dementia: systematic review and perspectives. Frontiers in Neurology. 2015;6.

55  GCBH. The brain–body connection: GCBH recommendations on physical activity and brain health. Washington, DC: Global Council on Brain Health, 2016.

56  Groot C, Hooghiemstra AM, Raijmakers PG, van Berckel BN, Scheltens P, Scherder EJ, Van der Flier WM, Ossenkoppele R. The effect of physical activity on cognitive function in patients with dementia: a meta-analysis of randomized control trials. Ageing Research Reviews. 2016 Jan 31;25:13-23.

57  Brett L, Traynor V, Stapley P. Effects of physical exercise on health and well-being of individuals living with a dementia in nursing homes: A systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2016 Feb 1;17(2):104-16.

58  Forbes D, Thiessen EJ, Blake CM, Forbes SC, Forbes S. Exercise programs for people with dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD006489. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006489.pub4.

59  Farina N, Rusted J, Tabet N. The effect of exercise interventions on cognitive outcome in Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review. International Psychogeriatrics. 2014 Jan;26(1):9-18.

60  Öhman H, Savikko N, Strandberg TE, Kautiainen H, Raivio MM, Laakkonen ML, Tilvis R, Pitkälä KH. Effects of exercise on cognition: the Finnish Alzheimer disease exercise trial: a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2016 Apr 1;64(4):731-8.

61  Pitkälä KH, Pöysti MM, Laakkonen ML, Tilvis RS, Savikko N, Kautiainen H, Strandberg TE. Effects of the Finnish Alzheimer disease exercise trial (FINALEX): a randomized controlled trial. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2013 May 27;173(10):894-901. 

62  Chan WC, Yeung JW, Wong CS, Lam LC, Chung KF, Luk JK, Lee JS, Law AC. Efficacy of physical exercise in preventing falls in older adults with cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. 2015 Feb 1;16(2):149-54.

63  Sherrington C, Michaleff ZA, Fairhall N, Paul SS, Tiedemann A, Whitney J, Cumming RG, Herbert RD, Close JC, Lord SR. Exercise to prevent falls in older adults: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016 Oct 4

64  National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Dementia: Supporting people with dementia and their carers in health and social care. London. 2016. (cited 2017 Aug 7) Available from here.

Chapter 7

Metabolic Health

1 Helléniurs ML. Ch 34 Metabolic syndrome. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2010) Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Available at: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/34.-Metabolic-syndrome.pdf

2 King NA, Hopkins M, Caudwell P, Stubbs RJ, Blundell JE. (2009) Beneficial effects of exercise: shifting the focus from body weight to other markers of health. British Journal of Sports Medicine; 43:924-927.

3 Hu G, Lindstrom J, Valle TT, Eriksson JG, Jousilahti P, Silventoinen K, Qiao Q, Tuomilehto J. (2004) Physical activity, body mass index and risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with normal or impaired glucose regulation. Archives of Internal Medicine; 164:892-896.

4 Plotnikoff RC, Taylor LM, Wilson PM, et al. Factors associated with physical activity in Canadian adults with diabetes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2006 Aug;38(8):1526-34.

5 Brazeau AS, Rabasa-Lhoret R, Strychar I, Mircescu H. Barriers to physical activity among patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2008 Nov;31(11):2108-9. doi: 10.2337/dc08-0720. Epub 2008 Aug 8.

6 Chimen M, Kennedy A, Nirantharakumar K, et al. What are the health benefits of physical activity in type 1 diabetes mellitus? A literature review. Diabetologia. 2012 Mar;55(3):542-51. doi:10.1007/s00125-011-2403-2.

7 International Diabetes Federation (2011) Online diabetes education modules Section 2 – Diabetes and Lifestyle Intervention. 2nd Edition.

8 Campbell M., Bracken RM, Turner, D, et al. (2015). Insulin Therapy and Dietary Adjustments to Normalise Glycaemia and Prevent Nocturnal Hypoglycaemia after Evening Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomised Controlled Trial". BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care. 3:e000085 doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2015-000085

9 Bracken, R.M. West, D.J. and Bain, S.C. (2012a) Pre-exercise insulin and carbohydrate strategies in the exercising T1DM individual. Ed Gallen, I. Springer-Verlag Publishing. ISBN: 978-0-85729-753-2. DOI 10.1007/978-0-85729-754-9_3

10 West DJ, Morton RD, Stephens JW, et al. Isomaltulose Improves Postexercise Glycemia by Reducing CHO Oxidation in T1DM. Medicine and Science Sports and Exercise. 2011 Feb;43(2):204-10. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181eb6147.

11 Bracken, R.M., Gray, B., Page, R., et al (2012b). Isomaltulose improves pre-exercise glycaemia and maintains run performance in type 1 diabetes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 44(5) 800-808.

12 West D, Stephens J.W., Luzio, S., et al. (2011b). A combined insulin reduction and carbohydrate feeding strategy 30 min before running best preserves blood glucose concentration after exercise through improved fuel oxidation in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Sports Sciences. 29(3) 279-289.

13 Campbell MD, Walker M, Trenell MI, et al. (2014). A Low-Glycemic Index Meal and Bedtime Snack Prevents Postprandial Hyperglycemia and Associated Rises in Inflammatory Markers, Providing Protection From Early but not Late Nocturnal Hypoglycemia Following Evening Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. Doi: 10.2337/dc14-0186

14 Turner D, Luzio S, Gray BJ,et al. Impact of single and multiple sets of resistance exercise in type 1 diabetes. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014 Mar 20. doi:10.1111/sms.12202.

15 Turner D, Luzio S, Gray BJ, et al. Algorithm that delivers an individualized rapid-acting insulin dose after morning resistance exercise counters post-exercise hyperglycaemia in people with Type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2016 Apr;33(4):506-10. doi: 10.1111/dme.12870.

16 Yardley JE, Sigal RJ, Riddell MC, et al. Performing resistance exercise before versus after aerobic exercise influences growth hormone secretion in type 1 diabetes. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014 Feb;39(2):262-5. doi:10.1139/apnm-2013-0329.

17 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2015) Type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management: National guideline 17. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Available at http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng17/chapter/1-Recommendations#managing-complications

18 Department of Health. (2011) Start Active, Stay Active. A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries’ Chief Medical Officers. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_128209

19 Tuomilehto, J., Lindström, J., Eriksson, J.G., Valle, T.T., Hämäläinen, H., Ilanne-Parikka, P., Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S., Laasko, M., Louheranta, A., Rastas, M., Salminen, V., Aunoal, S., Cepaitis, Z., Moltchanov, V., Hakumaki, M., Mnnelin, M., Martikkala, V., Sundvall, J., Uusitupa, M. (2001) Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. New England Journal of Medicine; 344: 1343-1350.

20 Williamson, D.F., Vinicor, F., Bowman, B.A. (2004) Primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by lifestyle intervention; implications for health policy. Annals of Internal Medicine: 140:951-957.

21 Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, Wang JX, Yang WY, An ZX, et al. (1997) Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance: the Da Qing IGT and Diabetes study. Diabetes care. 20:537-544

22 Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Mary S, et al. (2006) The Indian Diabetes Prevention Programme shows that lifestyle modification and metformin prevent type 2 diabetes in Asian Indian subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IDPP-1). Diabetologia 49: 289-297

23 Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. (2002) Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. New England Journal of Medicine; 346: 393-403.

24 Lindström J, Ilanne-Parikka P, Peltonen M, Aunola S, Erikkson G, Hemiö K, et al. (2006) Sustained reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes by lifestyle intervention: follow-up of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lancet. 368:1673-86

25 Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. (2009) 10 years follow-up of diabetes incidence and weight loss in the Diabetes Prevention Outcomes Study. Lancet 374:1677-86

26 Li G, Zhang P, Wang J, Gregg EW, Yang W, Gong Q, et al.(2008)The long-term effect of lifestyle interventions to prevent diabetes in the China Da Qing Prevention study: a 20-year follow-up study. Lancet 371:1783-9

27 Yudkin JS, Montori JM. (2014) The epidemic of pre-diabetes: the medicine and the politics.BMJ. 349:g4485

28 Sigal ,R.J., Kenny, G.P., Boulé, N.G., Wells, G.A., Prud'homme, D., Fortier, M., Reid, R.D., Tulloch, H. (2007) Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes: a randomised trial. Annals of Internal Medicine; 147(6): 357-369

29 Umpiierre D, Ribeiro PAB, Kramer CK, Leitāo CR, Zucatti ATN, Azevedo MJ, Gross JL, Ribeiro JP, Schaan BD. (2011) Physical Activity Advice Only or Structured Exercise Training and Association With HbA1c Levels in Type 2 Diabetes. JAMA 305:17:1790-1799

30 Pedersen, B.K., Saltin, B. (2006) Review. Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports; 16:(1): 3-63.

31 Pierce, N.S., (1999) Diabetes and exercise. British Journal of Sports and Medicine; 33:161-172: Quiz 172-3, 222.

32 Őstenson CG. Birkeland K, Henriksson J . (2010) Ch 26 Diabetes mellitus – type 2 diabetes. Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. Available at: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/26.-Diabetes-mellitus-–-type-2-diabetes.pdf

33 Bowman AM (2008) Promoting safe exercise and foot care for clients with type 2 diabetes.The Canadian Nurse. 104 (2) 23-7

34 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2012) Preventing type2 diabetes: risk identification and interventions for individuals at high risk: NICE public health guideline 38. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Available at https://www.nice.org.uk/Guidance/PH38

35 BACR (2006) Phase IV Exercise Instructor Training Manual and ACSM (2009) Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. Cited in: Welsh Local Government Association. (2010) National Exercise Referral Scheme. Cardiff: Welsh Local Government Association. Available at: http://www.wlga.gov.uk/publications-lifelong-learning-leisure-and-information/national-exercise-referral-scheme/

Chapter 8           

Musculoskeletal Health

1 Pedersen, B.K., Saltin, B. (2006) Review. Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports; 16:(1): 3-63.

2 Bennet RM, Clark SR, Goldberg L., et al. (1989) Aerobic fitness in patients with fibrositis. A controlled study of respiratory gas exchange and 133xenon clearance from exercising muscle. Arthritis Research and Therapy; 32:454-460.

3 Clark, S.R., Burckhardt, C.S., O’Rielly, C., Bennett, R.M. (1993) Fitness characteristics and perceived exertion in women with fibromyalgia. Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain;1(3/4): 191-197.

4 Clark, S.R. (1994) Prescribing exercise for fibromyalgia patients. Arthritis Care Research; 7:221-225.

5 Rossy LA, Buckelew SP, Dorr N, et al. (1999) A meta-analysis of fibromyalgia syndrome. Annals of Behavioural Medicine; 21:180-191

6 Häuser W, Klose P, Langhorst J, et al. (2010) Efficacy of different types of aerobic exercise in fibromyalgia syndrome: a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Arthritis Research and Therapy. 2010; 12(30: R79

7 Busch, A.J., Barber, K.A., Overend, T.J.et al. (2007) Exercise for fibromyalgia. Cochrane Database Systematic Review; CD003786

8 Department of Health. (2011) Start Active, Stay Active. A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries’ Chief Medical Officers.Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_128209

9 Roos E. Ch 37. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2010) Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Available at: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/37.-Osteoarthritis.pdf

10 Bennell, KL. Dobson, F. Hinman, RS. (2014). Exercise in osteoarthritis: Moving from prescription to adherence. Clinical Rheumatology; 28(1): 93-117

11 Devos-Comby, L., Cronan, T., Roesch, S.C. (2006) Do exercise and self management interventions benefit patients with osteoarthritis of the knee? A metanalysize review. Journal of Rheumatology; 33:744-56.

12 Fransen M, McConnell S, Harmer AR, et al. (2015) Exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD004376. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004376.pub3

13 Fransen M, McConnell S, Hernandez-Molina G, Reichenbach S. Exercise for osteoarthritis of the hip. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD007912. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007912.pub2

14 Pendleton, A., Arden, N., Dougados, M., (2000) EULAR recommendations for the management of knee osteoarthritis. Report of a task force of the standing Committee for International Clinical Studies including Therapeutic Trials (ESCISIT). Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases; 59:936-944.

15 Juhl C. Christensen R. Roos EM. et al (2014). Impact of exercise type and dose on pain and disability in knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arthritis Rheumatol 66(3): 622-36

16 Zhang W, Nuk G, Moskowitz RW, et al. (2009) OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis: Part III: changes in evidence following systematic cumulative update of research published through. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2010: 476–499

17 Nϋesch E, Dieppe P, Reichenbach S, et al. (2011) All cause and disease specific mortality in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis: population based cohort study. BMJ 342: d1165

18 Badley E. (2014) Inactivity, disability, and death are all inter liked. If you must watch a lot of television, move between commercial breaks. BMJ. 348.g2804

19 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2014) Osteoarthritis Care and management in adults: Clinical guidance 177. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

20 Vainionpau, A., Korpelainen, R., Leppaluoto, J., Jamsa, T. (2005) Effects of high-impact exercise on bone mineral density: A randomised controlled trial in premenopausal woman. Osteoporosis International; 16:191-197.

21 Heinonen, A., Kannus, P., Sievanen, H. (1999) Good maintenance of high-impact activity-induced bone gain by voluntary, unsupervised exercises: An 8-month follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research; 14(1):125-128.

22 Heinonen, A., Kannus, P., Sievanen, H. Oja, P., Pasanen, M., Rinne, M., Uusi-Rasi, K. (1996) Randomised controlled trial of effect of high-impact exercise on selected risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. The Lancet; 348:1343-1347

23 Engelke, K., Kemmler, W., Lamber, D. (2006) Exercise maintains bone density at spine and hips EPOPS: a 3-year longitudinal study in early postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis International; 17:133-42

24 Farahmand, B.Y., Persson, P.G., Michaelsson, K. Baron, J.A., Alberts, A., Moradi, T.(2000) Physical activity and hip fractures: A population-based case-control study. Swedish hip fracture study group. International Journal of Epidemiology; 29:308-14.

25 Howe TE, Shea B, Dawson,LJ, et al (2011). Exercise for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, in: The Cochrane Collaboration (Ed.), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.

26 Warburton, D.E.R ., Katzmarzyk, P.T., Rhodes, R.E., Shephard, J. (2007) Evidence-informed physical activity guidelines for Canadian adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism; 32:(2): S16-S68.

27 Gillespie LD, Robertson MC, Gillespie WJ, et al. Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD007146. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007146.pub3

28 MC, Campbell AJ, Gardner MM, Delvin N. (2002) Preventing injuries in older people by preventing falls: a meta-analysis of individual-level data. Journal of American Geriatric Society 2002; 50(5): 905-11

29 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2016) Osteoporosis- prevention of fragility fractures: Clinical knowledge summaries. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

30 Ribom EL, Piehlm-Aulin K. Ch 38. Osteoporosis. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2010) Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Available at http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/38.-Osteoporosis.pdf

31 Peters, M.J., Symmons, D.P., McCarey, D, et al. (2010) EULAR evidence-based recommendations for cardiovascular risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis,69:325-31

32 Metsios GS, Stavropoulas-Kalinoglou A, Veldhaijzen van Zanten JJCS, et al. (2008) Rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular disease and physical exercise: a systematic review. Rheumatology 2008: 47:239-248

33 Walsmith, J and Roubenoff, R.(2002) Cachexia in rheumatoid arthritis. International Journal of Cardiology; 85:89-99

34 Giles, JT, Bartlett,SJ, Andersen, RE, Fontaine, KR and Bathon, JM. (2008) Association of Body Composition With Disability in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Impact of Appendicular Fat and Lean Tissue Mass. Arthritis and Rheumatism; (Arthritis Care and Research) 59:10:1407-1415

35 Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, A, Metsious, GS, Panoulas, VF, et al. ( 2009) Association of obesity with modifiable risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases; 68:2:242-245

36 Marcora SM, Chester K, Mittal G, Lemmey AB and Maddison PJ. (2006) A randomized pfasw II trial of anti-TNF therapy for cachexia in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84:1463-1472

37 Metsios, GS, Savropoulos-Kalinoglou, A, Douglas, KMJ, et al. (2007) Blockade of tumour factor-x in rheumatoid arthritis: effects on components of rheumatoid cachexia. Rheumatology: 46: 1824-27

38 Engvall, IL, Tengstrand, B,l Brismar, K, Hafstomet , I. (2010) Infliximab therapy increases body fat mass in early rheumatoid arthritis independently of changes in disease activity and levels of leptin and adiponectin: a randomised study over 21 months. Arthritis Res earch and Therapy, 12 (5):R197

39 Hurkmans E, van der Giesan FJ, Vliet Vlieland TPM, et al. (2009) Dynamic exercise programs (aerobic capacity and/or muscle strength training) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database Systematic Review; CD006853

40 Gaudin P, Leguen-Guegan S, Allenet B,et al. Is dynamic exercise beneficial in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme 2007;75(1):11-7

41 Hakkinen A. Effectiveness and safety of strength training in rheumatoid arthritis. Current Opinion in Rheumatology 2004;16(20:132-7.

42 Stenstrom, C.H., Minor, M.A. (2003) Evidence for the benefits of aerobic and strengthening exercise in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatology; 49:428-34

43 Lemmey AB, Marcora SM, Chester K, Wilson S, Casanova F and Maddison PJ. (2009) Effects of high intensity resistance training in rheumatoid arthritis patients – a randomised controlled trial. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 61(12):1726-1734

44 Sokka, T, Hakkinen, A, Kautiainen H et al (2008) Physical inactivity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: data from twenty-one countries in a cross-sectional, international study. Arthritis Care Res; 59:42-50  

45 Law, RJ, Breslin A, Oliver, E.J,et al. (2010) Perceptions of the effects of exercise on joint health in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Rheumatology; 49:2444-2451

46 Brodin, N., Eurenius, E., Jensen, I., Nisell, R., Opava, C.H. (2008) Coaching patients with early rheumatoid arthritis to healthy physical activity. A multicenter randomized, controlled study. Arthritis Rheumatology; 59:325-31.

47 deJong, Z., Vliet-Vlieland, T.P.M. (2005) Safety of exercise in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Current Opinion Rheumatology; 17:177-82.

48 Opava CH, Nisell R. Ch 43. Rheumatoid arthritis. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2010) Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Available at: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/43.-Rheumatoid-arthritis.pdf

49 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2013) Rheumatoid arthritis – The management of rheumatoid arthritis in adults: Clinical guidance 79. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

50 Howe TE, Rochester L, Neil F, Skelton DA, Ballinger C. (2011) Exercise for improving balance in older people. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD004963. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004963.pub3.

51 Gillespie LD, Robertson M, Gillespie WJ, et al. (2013) Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database of Systemic Review; DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007146.pub3

52 Sherrington C, Michaleff ZA, Fairhall N et al. (2016) Exercise to prevent falls in older adults: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016; 0:1-10. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-096547

53 Chan WC, Yeung JWF, Wong CSM, et al. (2015) Efficacy of Physical Exercise in Preventing Falls in Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis. JAMDA 16 (2) 149-154

54 Hunter, G.R., Wetzstein, C.J., Fields, D.A. Brown, A., Bamman, M.M. (2000) Resistance training increases total energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in older adults. Journal of Applied Physiology; 89:977-984.

55 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2013) Falls: Assessment and prevention of falls in older people: Clinical guidance 161. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg161

Chapter 9    

Neurological Disorders

1 Rietberg MB, Brooks D, Uitdehaag BM, Kwakkel G. Exercise therapy for multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jan 25;(1):CD003980

2 Motl RW, Gosney JL. Effect ofexercise training on quality of life in multiple sclerosis. A meta-analysis. Mult Scler 2008; Jan 14(1): 129-35

3 Krupp LB. Fatigue in multiple sclerosis. A guide to diagnosis and management. New York: Demos Medical Publishing Inc; 2004. pp.27,64

4 Einarsson U, Hillert J. Multiple sclerosis. Ch 35. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2010) Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease.. Available at: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/35.-Multiple-sclerosis.pdf 

5 Borg K, Bekkelund SI, Henriksson M. Parkinson's disease. Ch 40. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2010) Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease.. Available at http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/40.-Parkinson's-disease.pdf 

6 Hjeltnes N. Spinal cord injury. Ch 45. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2010) Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease.. Available at http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/45.-Spinal-cord-injury.pdf 

7 Borjesson M, Mannerkorpi K, Knardahl, Karlson J, Mannheimer C. Pain. Ch 39. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2010) Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease.. Available at http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/39.-Pain.pdf

Chapter 10

Obesity

1 World Health Organization. (2015) Obesity and overweight. Fact sheet 311. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/

2 Campbell PT. (2014) Obesity; a certain and avoidable cause of cancer. The Lancet. 384 (995): 727-728

3 Reilly JJ, Kelly J. (2011) Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescents on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systemic review. International Journal of Obesity. 35 (7):891-8

4 Griffiths LJ, Dezateux C, Hill A (2011) Is obesity associated with emotional and behavioural problems in childhood. International journal of pediatric obesity 6 (2-2) e423-32

5 Klein S, Burke LE, Bray GA, et al. (2004) Clinical implications of obesity with specific focus on cardiovascular disease: a statement for professionals from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism: Endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation. 110 (18): 2952- 67

6 Wing RR, Lang W, Wadden TA, et al. (2011) Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 34 (7) 1481-6

7 Kritchevsky SB, Beavers KM, Miller ME, et al. (2015) Intentional Weight Loss and All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. PLoS One 10 (3) e0121993

8 Thomas DM, Bouchard C, Church T, et al. (2012) Why do individuals not lose more weight from an exercise intervention at a defined dose? An energy balance analysis. Obesity Review. 13:835-47

9 Department of Health. (2011) Start Active, Stay Active. A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries’ Chief Medical Officers. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_128209

10 Shaw KA, Gennat HC, O’Rourke P, Del Mar C. (2006) Exercise for overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003817. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003817.pub3

11 Swift DL, Johannsen NM, Lavie CJ, et al. (2014) The Role of Exercise and Physical Activity in Weight Loss and Maintenance. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 56(40: 441-447

12 Donnelly JE, Blair SN, Jakicic JM, et al. (2009) American College 0f Sports Medicine Position Stand. Appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight gain for adults. Medicine and science in sports and exercise.41(2): 459-71

13 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2014): Clinical Guidelines 189. Obesity: identification, assessment and management of overweight and obesity in children, young people and adults. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

14 Winett RA, Carpinelli RN. (2001) Potential health-related benefits of resistance training. Prev Med. 33:503–13.

15 Ruiz, J.R., Sui, X., Lobela, F., Jackson, A.W., Sjostrom, M., Blair, S.N. (2008). Association between muscular strength and mortality in men: prospective cohort studies. British Medical Journal; 337:a439.

16 Foster, G.D., Wadden, T.A., Voght, R.A., Brewer, G. (1997) What is reasonable weight loss? Patient’s expectations and evaluations of obesity treatment outcomes. Journal of Consultant Clinical Psychology; 65:79-85

17 Swift DL, Earnest CP, Blair SN, et al. (2012) The effect of different doses of aerobic exercise training on endothelial function in postmenopausal women with elevated blood pressure: Results from the drew study. Br J Sports Med.;46:753–8.

18 Kraus WE, Houmard JA, Duscha BD, et al. (2002) Effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on plasma lipoproteins. N Engl J Med.;347:1483–92

19 Johannsen NM, Swift DL, Lavie CJ, et al. (2013) Categorical analysis of the impact of aerobic and resistance exercise training, alone and in combination, on cardiorespiratory fitness levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Results from the hart-d study. Diabetes Care. 36(10):3305-12

20 Myers VH, McVay MA, Brashear MM, et al. (2013) Exercise training and quality of life in individuals with type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 36(7):1884-90

21.Martin CK, Church TS, Thompson AM, et al. (2009)Exercise dose and quality of life: A randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med;169:269–78

22 King, N.A., Hopkins, M., Caudwell, P., Stubbs, R.J., Blundell, J.E. (2009) Beneficial effects of exercise: shifting the focus from body weight to other markers of health. British Journal of Sports Medicine; 43:924-927.

23 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2014): Public Health guidance 53. Managing overweight and obesity in adults – lifestyle weight management services. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ph53

Chapter 11

Pregnancy

1 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (2006) Exercise in pregnancy. (cited 2017 Aug 13). Available from: https://www.rcog.org.uk/globalassets/documents/patients/patient-information-leaflets/pregnancy/recreational-exercise-and-pregnancy.pdf

2 Kramer MS, McDonald SW. Aerobic exercise for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD000180. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000180.pub2.

3 Guidance from the Department of health of the physical activity and pregnancy infographic. (cited 2017 Nov 16) Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/622623/Physical_activity_pregnancy_infographic_guidance.pdf

4 Rogozińska E, Marlin N, Jackson L, Bogaerts A. Effects of antenatal diet and physical activity on maternal and fetal outcomes: individual patient data meta-analysis and health economic evaluation. Health Technology Assessment. 2017;21(41):1-94.

5 Josefsson A, Bø K. Ch 12. Pregnancy. Physical activity in the treatment and prevention of disease. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. 2010. (cited 2017 Aug 13). Available from: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/12.-Pregnancy.pdf

6 Daley AJ, Foster L, Long G, et al. The effectiveness of exercise for the prevention and treatment of antenatal depression: systematic review with meta‐analysis. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2015 Jan 1;122(1):57-62.

7 Contraindications to exercise. (cited 2017 Nov 11) Available from: https://gpcpd.walesdeanery.org/index.php/starting-to-exercise/contraindications    

8 Artal R, O'toole M. Guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists for exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2003 Feb 1;37(1):6-12.

9 Hunskaar S, Burgio K, Clark A, et al. Epidemiology of urinary (UI) and faecal (FI) incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Incontinence. 2005;1:255-312.

10 Wu WH, Meijer OG, Uegaki K, et al. Pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPP), I: Terminology, clinical presentation, and prevalence. European Spine Journal. 2004 Nov 1;13(7):575-89.

Chapter 12

Respiratory disease

1 Emtner M. (2010) Ch 17 Asthma. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Available at: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/17.-Asthma.pdf

2 Storms WW. (2003) Review of exercise induced asthma. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; 35:1464-70.

3 Pedersen BK, Saltin B. (2006) Review. Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports; 16:(1): 3-63.

4 Emtner, M. (2010) Ch 20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Swedish National Institute of Public Health Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Available at: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/20.-Chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease.pdf

5 British Lung Foundation (2014) Exercise with a lung condition: patient information. Available at: http://www.blf.org.uk/Page/Exercise 

6 Bendstrup, K.E., Ingemann, J.J., Holm , S. (1997) Out-patient rehabilitation improves activities of daily living, quality of life and exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. European Respiratory Journal; 10:2801-6.

7 Hill, N.S. (2006). Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society. Pulmonary Rehabilitation; 3:66-74.

8 Troosters T, Gooselink R, DeCramer M (2000) Short and long term effects of outpatient rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial. The American Journal of medicine 109 (3): 207-12

9 McCarthy B, Casey D, Devane D, et al. (2015) Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Cochrane database of systemic reviews. 2:CD003793. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003793.pub3

10 Griffiths, T.L., Burr, M.L., Campbell, I.A., et al. (2000) Results at 1 year of outpatient multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation; a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet; 355:362-368.

11 Griffiths, T.L., Phillips, C.J., Davies, S., Burr, M.L., Campbell, I.A. (2001) Cost effectiveness of an outpatient multidisciplinary pulmonary rehabilitation programme. Thorax; 56:779-784.

12 Gloeckel R, Marinov B, Pitta F. (2013) Practical recommendations for exercise training in patients with COPD. European respiratory review. 22(128): 178-186

13 Seymour JM, Moore L, Jolley CJ, et al. (2010) Outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation following acute exacerbations of COPD. Thorax 65 (5) 423-8

14 Corhay JL, Dang DN, Van Cauwenberge H, Louis R. (2013) Pulmonary rehabilitation and COPD: providing patients a good environment for optimizing therapy. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 9:27-39

15 Jones SE, Maddocks M, Kon SS, et al. (2015) Sarcopenia in COPD: prevalence, clinical correlates and response to pulmonary rehabilitation. Thorax 70(3): 2132-18

16 Waschki B, Kirsten A, Holz O, et al. (2011) Physical activity is the strongest predictor of all-cause mortality in patients with COPD: a prospective cohort study. Chest. 140 (2):331-42

17 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2010) Clinical guidelines 101. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults in primary and secondary care: London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

18 Bolton CE, Bevan-Smith EF, Blakey JD, et al. (2013) British Thoracic Society guideline on pulmonary rehabilitation in adults. Thorax 68: ii!-ii30

19 Garcia-Aymerich J, Lange P, Benet M, et al. (2007) Regular physical activity modifies smoking-related lung function decline and reduces risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based cohort study. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 175(5): 458-63

20 van Wetering CR, Hoogendoorn M, Mol SJM, et al. (2010). Short- and long-term efficacy of a community-based COPD management programme in less advanced COPD; a random controlled trial. Thorax .65:7-13

Chapter 13

Sedentary Behaviour Pt 1

1 The UK Physical Activity Guidelines on the Motivate2move website available at: http://gpcpd.walesdeanery.org/index.php/uk-physical-activity-guidelines 

2 Jakes RW, Day NE, Khaw KT, (2003) Television viewing and low participation in vigorous recreation are independently associated with obesity and markers of cardiovascular risk. EPIC-Norfolk population-based study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 57:1089-1096.

3 Hu FB, Leitzmann MF, Stampfer,MJ, et al.(2001) Physical activity and television watching in relation to risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men. Archives of Internal Medicine; 161:1542-1548.

4 Bertrais S, Beyeme-Ondoua JP, Czernichow S, et al. (2005) Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged French subjects. Obesity Research; 13:936-944.

5 Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Owen N, et al. (2004) Aus Diab Steering Committee. Physical activity and television viewing in relation to risk of undiagnosed abnormal glucose metabolism in adults. Diabetes Care; 27:2603-2609.

6 Katzmarzyk PT, Church TS, Craig CL. (2009) Sitting times and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise; 41:998-1005.

7 Edwardson CL, Gorely T, Davies MJ, et al. (2012) Association of Sedentary Behaviour with Metabolic Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE 7(4): e34916. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034916

8 Wen CP, Wai JP, Tsai MK, et al.(2011) Minimal amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 2011; 378: 1244-53

9 Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, et al. (2012) Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet 2012; 380: 219-29

10 Pearson N, Biddle SJH. (2011) Sedentary behaviour and dietary intake in children, adolescents and adults: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med :41:178-88.

11 Melkevik o, Torsheim T, Iannotti R, et al. (2010) Is spending time in screen-based sedentary behaviours associated with less physical activity: a cross national investigation. Int J Behav Nutr Phy 7:46.

12 Foti KE, Eaton DK, lowry R, et al. (2011) Sufficient sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours. Am J Prev Med 41:596-602.

13 Benatti FB, Reid-larsen M. (2015) The effects of breaking up prolonged sitting time: a review of experimental studies. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2015; 47; 2053-61ychol 2009; 28: 404-13

14 Harris JL, Bargh JA, Brownell KD. (2009) Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behaviour. Health Ps

15 Veerman JL, HealyGN, Cobiac LJ, et al. (2012) Television viewing time and reduced life expectancy: a life table analysis. Br J Sports Med 46:927-30.

16 Henson J, Yates T, Biddle SJ, et al. (2013) Association of measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity with markers of cardiometabolic health. Diabetologia 56:5:1012-1020.

17 Chau JY, Grunseit AC, Chey T, et al (2013) Daily sitting time and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. PLoS One 2013; 8 (11): e80000

18 Biswas A, Oh PI, Faulkner GE, et al (2015) Sedentary time and its association with risk for disease incidence, mortality and hospitalization in adults; a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2015; 162: 123-32

19 Ekelund U, Steene-Johannessen, Brown WJ, et al (2016) Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women. Lancet 2016; 388: 1302-10

20 Schumacher M, Rucker G Schwarzer G. (2014) Meta-analysis and the Surgeons General’s report on smoking and health. New England Journal of Medicine 2014; 370: 186-88

21 Prospective Study Collaboration. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900,000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet 2009; 373: 1083-96

22 Kim Y, Wilkens LR, Park SY, et al (2013) Association between various sedentary behaviours and all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality: the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Int J Epidemiol 2013; 42: 1040-56

Sedentary Behaviour Pt 2

1 Sedentary Behaviour Research Network. (2012). Standardized use of the terms “sedentary” and “sedentary behaviours”. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism. 37: 540–542.

2 Booth FW, Roberts CK, Laye MJ (2012). Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic diseases. Comprehensive Physiology. 2. 1143-1211.

3 Bloomfield SA (1997). Changes in musculoskeletal structure and function with prolonged bed rest. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 29(2). p. 197-206.

4 Arthritis Research UK (2103) Musculoskeletal health-A public health approach.

5 Wittink H, Engelbert R, Takken T (2011) The dangers of inactivity; exercise and inactivity physiology for the manual therapist. Manual Therapy 16 (3) 209-216

6 Gianoudis J, Bailey CA, Daly RM (2015). Associations between sedentary behaviour and body composition, muscle function and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. Osteoporosis International. 26(2). 571-9.

7 HSE. (2015). Work-related musculoskeletal disorder statistics, Great Britain, 2015. Health and Safety executive. [online].

8 Shiri R, Karppinen J, Leino-Arjas P, et al. (2009). The association between obesity and low back pain: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology. 171(2). 135-154.

9 Teichtahl AJ, Urquhurt DM, Wang Y, et al. (2015). Physical inactivity is associated with narrower lumbar intervertebral discs, high fat content of paraspinal muscles and low back pain and disability. Arthritis Research and Therapy. 17:144.

10 Richmond H, Hall AM, Copsey B, et al. (2015) The effectiveness of cognitive behavioural treatment for non-specific low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 10(8).

11 Kamper SJ, Apeldoorn AT, Chiarotto A, et al. (2015). Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial for chronic low back pain: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. British Medical Journal. 350:44.

12 Shiri R, Falah-Hassani K, ViiKari-Juntura E, Coggon D. (2016). Leisure-time physical activity and sciatica: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Pain. 20(10). 1563-1572.

13 Shiri R, Karppinen J, Leino-Arjas P, et al. (2007). Cardiovascular and lifestyle risk factors in lumbar radicular pain or clinically defined sciatic: a systematic review. European Spine Journal. 16. 2043-2054.

14 Shiri R, Lallukka T, Karppinen J, ViiKari-Juntura E, et al. (2014). Obesity as a risk factor for sciatica: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology. 179(8). 929-937.

15 CMO UK physical activity guidelines https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-physical-activity-guidelines and World Health Organisation. (2016). Physical activity and adults. [online]. http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_adults/en/   

16 Hayden J, van Tulder MW, Malmivaara A, Koes BW. (2005). Exercise therapy for treatment of non-specific low back pain. Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 3.

17 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2016) Low back pain and sciatica in over 16s: assessment and management: National guidance 59. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

18 Pederson BK, Saltin B. (2015). Exercise as medicine – evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in 26 different chronic conditions. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 2015 (Suppl 3) 25:1-72 doi: 10.1111/sms.12581

19 Klein EE, Well L Jr, Well LS Sr, Fleisher AE. (2013). Body mass index and Achilles tendinopathy: A 10-year retrospective analysis. Foot and Ankle Specialist. 6(4) 276-282.

20 Scott RT, Hyer CF, Granata A. (2013). The correlation of Achilles tendinopathy and body mass index. Foot and Ankle Specialist. 6(4). 283-285.

21 Ellingson LD, Colbert LH, Cook DB. (2012). Physical activity is related to pain sensitivity in healthy women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 44(7). 1401-1406

22 Malliaras P, Barton CJ, Reeves ND, Langberg H. (2013). Achilles and patellar tendinopathy loading programmes: a systematic review comparing clinical outcomes and identifying potential mechanisms for effectiveness. Sports Medicine. 43(4). 267-286.

23 Francheschi F, Papakia R, Paciotti M et al. (2014). Obesity as a risk factor for tendinopathy: A systematic review. International Journal of Endocrinology. 1-10.

24 Van der Worp H, Van Ark M, Roerink S, et al. (2011). Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy: a systematic review of the literature. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 45. 446-452.

25 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2014) Osteoarthritis: care and management: Clinical guidance 59. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

26 Wallis JA, Webster KE, Levinger P, Taylor NF. (2013). What proportion of people with hip and knee osteoarthritis meet physical activity guidelines? A systematic-review and meta-analysis. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 21. 1648-1659.

27 Russel S, Jariwala A, Conlon R, et al. (2014). A blinded randomised controlled trial assessing conservative management strategies for frozen shoulder. Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery. 23. 500-507.

28 Macias-Hernandez SI, Morones-Alba JD, Miranda-Duarte A et al. (2016). Glenohumeral osteoarthritis: overview, therapy, and rehabilitation. Disability and rehabilitation. 14. 1-9.

29 Edwards P, Ebert J, Joss B et al. (2016). Exercise rehabilitation in the non-operative management of rotator cuff tears: a review of the literature. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 11(2). 279-301.

30 Rechardt M, Shiri R, Karppinen J, et al. (2010). Lifestyle and metabolic factors in relation to shoulder pain and rotator cuff tendinitis: A population-based study. BMC Musculoskeletal disorders. 11:65.

Chapter 14

Surgery

1 Department of Health. (2011) Start Active, Stay Active. A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries’ Chief Medical Officers. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_128209

2 Pearse RM, Harrison DA, James P, et al. (2006) Identification and characterisation of the high-risk surgical population in the United Kingdom. Crit Care. 10:R81

3 Khuri SF, Henderson WG, DePalma RG, et al. (2005) Determinants of long-term survival after major surgery and the adverse effect of postoperative complications. Ann Surg. 242:326-341

4 Girish M, Trayner E Jr, Dammann O, Pinto-Plata V, Celli B. (2001) Symptom-limited stair climbing as a predictor of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications after high-risk surgery. Chest 120:1147-51

5 Reilly DF, McNeely MJ, Doerner D, et al. (1999) Self-reported exercise tolerance and the risk of serious perioperative complications. Arch Intern Med 159:2185-92

6 Lawrence VA, Hazuda HP, Cornell JE, et al. (2004) Functional independence after major abdominal surgery in the elderly. J Ann Coll Surg 2004;199:762-72

7 Older P, Smith R, Courtney P, Hane R.(1993) Preoperative evaluation of cardiac failure and ischemia in elderly patients by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Chest 1993; 104:701-4

8 Carlisle J, Swart M. (2007) Mid-term survival after abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery predicted by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Br J Surg 94:966-9

9 Datta D, Lahiri B. (2003) Preoperative evaluation of patients undergoing lung resection surgery. Chest 123:2096-103

10 Hennis PJ, Meole PM,, Grocott MP. (2011) Cardiopulmonary exercise testing for the evaluation of perioperative risk in non-cardiopulmonary surgery. Postgrad Med J 87:550-7

11 Snowdon CP, Prentis JM, Anderson HL et al. (2010) Sub maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing predicts complications and hospital length of stay in patients undergoing major elective surgery. Ann Surg 251: 535-41

12 Wilson RJT, Davies S, Yates D, et al. (2010) Impaired functional capacity is associated with all-cause mortality after major elective intra-abdominal surgery. Br J Anaesth 105: 297-303

13 West RJT, Lythgoe D, Barbara C, et al. (2014) Cardiopulmonary exercise variables are associated with postoperative morbidity after major colonic surgery: a prospective blinded observational study. Br J Anaesth 101:1166-72

14 Snowden CP, Prentis J, Jacques B, et al. (2013) Cardiorespiratory fitness predicts mortality and hospital length of stay after major elective surgery in older people. Ann Surg 257(6):999-1004.

15 Dronkers JJ, Chorus AMJ, van Meeteren NLU, Hopman-Rock M. (2013) The association of pre-operative physical fitness and physical activity with outcome after scheduled major abdominal surgery. Anaesthesia 68: 67-73

16 O’Doherty AF, West M, Jack S and Grocott MPW. (2013) Preoperative aerobic exercise training in elective intra-cavity surgery: a systemic review. Br J Anaesth 110: 679-89

17 Arthur HM, Daniels C, McKelvie R, et al. (2000) Effect of a preoperative intervention on preoperative and postoperative outcomes in low-risk patients awaiting elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 133: 253-62

18 Singh F, Newton R, Galvao D et al. (2013) A systematic review of pre-surgery exercise intervention studies with cancer patients. Surg Oncol 22: 92-104

19 West MA, Loughney L, Lythgoe D, et al. (2015) Effect of prehabilitation on objectively measured physical fitness after neoadjuvant treatment in preoperative rectal cancer patients: a blinded interventional pilot study. Br J Anaesth. 114: 244-51

20 Schmid D, Leitzmann MF. (2013) Association between physical activity and mortality among breast cancer and colorectal cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Oncology. 25:7:1293-1311

21 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2012) Lower limb peripheral arterial disease: diagnosis and management: NICE clinical guidelines 147. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence

22 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (2014) Exercise and Surgery . http://www.rcsed.ac.uk/the-college/news/2014/october-2014/exercise-surgery.aspx

Chapter 15

Motivation to Change Health Behaviour

1 Rollnick, S., Mason, P., Butler, C. (1999) Health Behaviour Change: A guide for practitioners. London: Churchill Livingstone.

2 Resnicow, K., Diiorio, C., Soet, J.E. Ernst, D., Borrelli, B., Hecht, J. (2002). Motivational interviewing in health promotion: it sounds like something is changing. Health Psychology; 21:444-451.

3 Rubak, S., Sandback, A., Lauritzen, T., Chitensen, B. (2005) Motivational interviewing: a systemic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of General Practitioners; 55(513):305-312.

4 Rollnick, S., Butler, C., Kinnersley, P., Gregory, J., Mash, B. (2010) Motivational interviewing. British Medical Journal; 340:c1900.

5 Miller, R., Rose, G. (2009) Towards a theory of motivational interviewing. American Psychological Association; 64:527-37

6 Miller, W., Rollnick, S. (2012) Motivational Interviewing. Third Edition. Motivational Interviewing: Helping people change. New York: Guildford Press.

7 O’Donovan, G., Blazevich, A.J., Boreham, C., Cooper, A.R., Crank, H., Ekelund, U., Fox, K., Gately, P., Giles-Corti, B., Gill, J.M.R., Hamer, M., McDermott, I., Murphy, M., Mutrie, N., Reilly, J.J., Saxton, J.M., Stamatakis, E.(2010) The ABC of physical Activity for Health: a consensus statement from the British Association of Sport and Exercises Sciences. Journal of Sport Sciences; 28:6:591 Appendix 1

8 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2007) Behaviour change: the principles for effective interventions PH6 London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

9 Kallings, L.V., Kallings, M.E., Kowalski, J., Hellenius, M.L., Stahle, A. (2009) Self Reported Adherence: A Method for Evaluating Prescribed Physical Activity in Primary Care Patients. Journal of Physical Activity and Health; 6:483-492.

Chapter 16

Starting to Get Active

1 Physical Activity Policy and Health Improvement Directorate. (2009) The general practice physical activity questionnaire (GPPAQ); a screening tool to assess adult physical activity levels within primary care.

2 The Scot-PASQ. http://www.healthscotland.com/documents/6255.aspx

3 Tudor-Locke C, Sisson SB, Lee SM et al. (2006) Evaluation of quality of commercial pedometers. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 2006;97:S10-5

4 Chan CB, Ryan DA, Tudor-Locke C. (2004) Health benefits of a pedometer-based physical activity intervention in sedentary workers. Preventive Medicine. 2004;39 (6): 1215-22

5 Le Masurier GC, Sidman CL, Corbin. (2003) Accumulating 10,000 steps: does this meet current physical activity guidelines? Res Q Exerc Sport. 2003; 74(4): 389-94

6 Thompson DL, Rakow J, Perdue SM. (2004) Relationship between accumulated walking and body composition in middle-aged women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36(5):911-4

7 Tudor-Locke C, Sissson SB Lee SM et al (2005) Pedometer-determined step count guidelines for classifying walking intensity in a young ostensibly healthy population. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. 2005;3096):666-76

8 Wilde BE, Sidman CL, Corbin CB. (2001) A 10,000 step count as a physical activity target for sedentary women. Res Q Exerc sport. 2001;72(4):411-4

9 Tudor-Locke C, Bassett DR. (2004) How many steps/day are enough? Preliminary pedometer indices for public health. Sports Medicine. 2004;34:1-8

10 Tudor-Locke C, Hatano Y, Pangrazi RP, Kang M. (2008) Revisiting “How many steps are enough”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.2008,40:S537-543

11 Tudor-Locke C, Ainsworth BE, Whitt MC et al. (2001) The relationship between pedometer-determined ambulatory activity and body composition variables. International Journal of Obesity. 2001;25:1571-8

12 Adapted from K Parmenter ( 2001) ‘Starting to exercise’ Bandolier available at; http://www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/booth/hliving/startoex.html

13 Swedish National Institute of Public Health. (2010) Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Available at: http://www.fyss.se/fyss-in-english/

14 Department of Health. (2007) Our NHS, our future: NHS next stage review – interim report. London: The Stationery Office.

15 Royal College of General Practitioners. You and your GP. Patient Information leaflet. London: RCGP, 2010. www.rcgp.org.uk/pdf/NI GP Leaflet.pdf

16 Pedersen, B.K., Saltin, B. (2006) Review. Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports; 16:(1): 3-63.

17 Emtner, M. (2010) Ch 20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Swedish National Institute of Public Health Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Available at: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/20.-Chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease.pdf

18 BACR (2006) Phase IV Exercise Instructor Training Manual and ACSM (2009) Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. Cited in: Welsh Local Government Association. (2010) National Exercise Referral Scheme. Cardiff: Welsh Local Government Association. Available at: http://www.wlga.gov.uk/publications-lifelong-learning-leisure-and-information/national-exercise-referral-scheme/

19 Thune I. (2010) Cancer Ch 19. Swedish National Institute of Public Health. Physical Activity in the prevention and treatment of disease. Available at: http://fyss.se/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/19.-Cancer.pdf

20 American College of Sports medicine. Position stand. (1993) Physical activity, physical fitness and hypertension. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise. 25:i-x

21 Riebe D, Franklin BA, Thompson PD et al. (2015) Updating ACMs Recommendations for Exercise Preparticipation Health Screening. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2015 Nov;47(11):2473-9 doi; 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000664